Judaism is the religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people.
Judaism is a monotheistic religion, with its main inspiration being based on or found in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) which has been explored in later texts, such as the Talmud.
Stretching 4,000 years back to its patriarch Abraham, Judaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world. A Jew is anyone who is born of a Jewish mother or who has converted in accordance with Jewish law. The foundation of Jewish law (halakha) and tradition is the Torah (also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Book of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy).
Additional authoritative texts include the Talmud and the Midrash. Observant Jews recite prayers three times daily, with a fourth prayer added on the Sabbath and holidays. The Shema Yisrael (“Hear, O Israel: the Lord is our God, the Lord is one”) is a centerpiece of Jewish prayer services and encapsulates the monotheistic essence.
The Sabbath commemorates God’s day of rest after six days of creation. Widely observed Jewish holidays are Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Purim, Shavuot and Hanukkah. In 2010, the world Jewish population was estimated at 13.4 million, or roughly 0.2 percent of the total world population.
udaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.
Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period
The Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period and among segments of the modern non-Orthodox denominations. Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.
Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi and Modern Orthodox), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel.
Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more “traditional” interpretation of Judaism’s requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews.
Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary.Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them.
The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years.
Has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age.
Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. The Hebrews and Israelites were already referred to as “Jews” in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title “Children of Israel”.Texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha’i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.
Source : Wikipedia